Single Particle Soot Photometer
The SP2 is Droplet’s premier instrument for direct measurement of black carbon in individual aerosol particles. The SP2 delivers unmatched detail about black carbon particles, including mass, size, heat of vaporization, and coating – critical information for characterization of pollution sources, accurate description of optical properties, and prediction of health effects.TALK TO AN EXPERT
The SP2 features a built-in software program that provides a user-friendly virtual instrument panel for the control, data display, and data logging of the instrument.
- View graphs of incandescence and scattering signals from individual particles.
- View the incandescent particle concentration over the last 30 minutes.
- Monitor parameters like YAG laser power and flow measurements.
- Change the charts and data channels displayed in the software.
- Filter data that is saved to the output file so it includes only specific types of particle events.
Laser incandescence and particle light-scattering
- Nd:YAG intracavity laser-induced particle incandescence (LII) measures black carbon independently of particle mixing state.
- Single particle incandescence is measured and correlated to black carbon mass
- Single particle light scattering is measured and used to indicate particle size, non-BC containing aerosol number, and mass concentrations.
|Measured Parameters||Single-particle laser incandescence Single-particle light scattering|
|Auxiliary Parameters||Temperature Pressure|
|Derived Parameters||BC mass distribution as function of particle diameter Particle number distribution as a function of particle size|
|Maximum Data Acquisition Rate||0 – 12,500 particles/cm3 at 120 vccm (0 - 25,000 particles/sec; concentrations can basically increase until particles become coincident)|
|Particle Size Range||Scattering signal: 200 – 430 nm diameter (this range encompasses the accumulation mode of most particles, i.e. range where most mass is found). Incandescent signal: depends on particle density, but 70 – 500 nm mass-equivalent diameter assuming a black carbon density of 1.8 g/cm3|
|Aerosol Medium||Air, 0 - 40 °C (32 - 104 °F)|
|Lasers||Nd:YAG Laser: 1064 nm, 3 MW/cm2 intracavity circulating power Pump Laser: 808 nm, 4 W|
|Sample Flow||30 – 180 volumetric cm3/minute (typically 120)|
|Flow Control||Electronic flow control with a laminar flow element (LFE) and a solenoid valve|
|Pump||Two single-head diaphragm pumps encased in a box|
|Minimum Black Carbon Detection Limit|
|Front Panel Display|
|Rear Panel Connections|
|Data Storage Capacity||Depends on number of particles; at a concentration of 1,000 #/cm3 and a standard flow rate of 120 volumetric cm3 /minute, the SP2 computer has the capacity to store 56 hours of continuous data|
|Communications Output||Gigabyte Ethernet interfaced through an Intel® PC82573V PCIe GbE controller|
|Power Requirements||SP2: Universal Voltage External Pump: 30 W|
|Dimensions||SP2: 48 cm W x 61 cm L x 26 cm H Pump: 20 cm W x 25 cm L x 10 cm H 19" Monitor: 37 cm W x 22 cm L x 39 cm H|
|Weight||SP2: 26.1 kg Pump: 3.4 kg 19" Monitor: 3 kg|
|Environmental Operating Conditions||Temperature: 0 – 40°C (32 – 104 °F) RH: 0 – 100% RH non-condensing|
- Beam scan camera and software
- YAG optics kit (spare YAG crystal and output coupler)
- Laser alignment bench
- Nebulizer for liquid samples with optional auto- sampler
- Aircraft Aerosol Inlet
The Lifecycle Care Program ensures SP2-D integrity and performance vital to your research mission for 3 years or 3 calls (whichever comes first). When conducting complex and time intensive laboratory or field measurements it is critical to avoid down time, and ensure data collection accuracy. The program consists of 3 key deliverables for each year or call:
- Instrument Logistics
- Instrument Integrity
- Instrument Performance
Lifecycle Care Program Includes:
- Shipping to and from Droplet Measurement Technologies facility
- Customs handling, including CARNET ATA if required
- Incoming instrument evaluation and health check
- Software and firmware validation
- 100%-unit functionality test
- Calibration data
- Calibration report
- Certificate of calibration
At times, our technician might discover an instrument issue, which might not be covered by the Lifecycle Care Program or by our product warranty. In such case we will reach out to you with a service & repair estimate to allow you to provide us with the next steps of action.
Particle identification by laser-induced incandescence in a solid-state laser cavity
The laser-induced incandescence of a particle of unknown size and composition can be detected simultaneously with the light elastically scattered by the particle, providing information on both the size and composition of the particle.Read More
Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particle
The SP2 was deployed on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment as part of the field campaign based in Kiruna, Sweden (67.8N, 20.3E), to evaluate ozone loss processes in the polar vortex.Read More
20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing
Black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion alters chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere and snow albedo, yet little is known about its emission or deposition histories.Read More