Your research has world-changing implications. That’s why you, the scientist, are at the center of our Droplet ecosystem. Our goal is to provide robust support throughout all of your measurement campaigns. Through Droplet Science Programs, our scientists come alongside you to provide support and guidance whenever needed – from foundational questions that drive your program’s objective to implementation and analysis.
Science programs scope
Droplet’s science team has worked across all phases of campaigns, and we are ready to assist your program at any stage.
- Project Definition: Droplet can help you frame your key question and define an approach to help answer it.
- Project Funding: We are experienced in writing proposals to secure funding for your critical research.
- Program Execution: Droplet scientists work in the field alongside your team to ensure proper instrument operation and data validity.
- Data Analysis: Droplet is experienced in crunching and understanding the impact of the data you collect. We will help you find meaningful insights.
- Publications: Your findings are important for others in the community to access and understand. We have contributed to hundreds of papers and can assist in your own efforts to publish your findings.
See our programs in action
ICE-POP: Ice nucleation measurements during the 2018 Winter Olympics
Goal: To support the 2018 Winter Games with accurate weather predictions, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) initiated the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang Olympic and Paralympic winter games (ICE-POP).
Program: Droplet scientists consulted with KMA to determine the optimal site, managed a two-month deployment with the SPIN, and ensured data collection throughout the 2018 Winter Olympic and Paralympic games. Our scientists also performed data analysis to understand the mechanisms of ice formation in clouds and the formation of snow.
Results: Measurements from the program have been compared with temperature-only parameterizations to analyze model accuracy and relevance to PyeongChang. Ultimately, a more accurate parametrization derived from measurements will be developed going forward, and will improve the accuracy of snow forecasts in the region.
United Arab Emirates/University of Colorado: Targeted observations and seeding using A-UAS
Goal: The objective of this program was to develop and assess an autonomous unmanned aircraft system (A-UAS) that would utilize in-situ real-time data to sense and target suitable clouds for seeding.
Summary: Droplet scientists partnered with CU to develop UAV-versions of a cloud droplet probe. Our scientists will further work with CU to analyze data in support of algorithm development to identify areas most suitable to seeding and automate seed/no-seed decisions.
Results: Droplet’s work with CU on this program has led to the delivery of the “right” amount of the “right” seeding agent at the “right” time and place.
Droplet scientists are experienced in successful program execution. The following chart illustrates a process we developed with a weather modification research partner to continuously review data and adjust daily flight plans to effectively collect the required data in an efficient manner.
Meet our scientists
Duncan Axisa PhD
Duncan is the Director of Science Programs at Droplet Measurement Technologies. His primary area of expertise is in aerosol-cloud interactions, cloud microphysics, and weather modification. Duncan’s work at Droplet focuses on partnering with scientists and research laboratories to design science programs, develop funding proposals, and ensure that program activities are strategically conceived and executed to a high level of scientific accountability. Duncan earned his Ph.D. in Engineering (with a focus in aerosol microphysics) from the University of Denver, and a Master’s degree in Atmospheric Science (with a focus in aerosol-cloud interactions) from Texas A&M University. Prior to joining Droplet, Duncan worked at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) conducting atmospheric science field programs using scientific instrumentation to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions, cloud and precipitation microphysics, new particle formation, and weather modification. He has participated in over 30 field campaigns including campaigns in the US, Europe, Australia, Arabian Peninsula, India and Asia.
Alexis Attwood Badder PhD
Alexis is Droplet’s primary contact for researchers and scientists studying bioaerosols, black carbon, or cloud condensation nuclei. Her instrument focus at Droplet includes the WIBS-NEO, SP2, CCN, PAX, UHSAS, and SP2-XR. Alexis earned her Ph.D. in Atmospheric Chemistry from the University of New Hampshire and continued with postdoctoral research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Her research focused on ground-based measurement of aerosol optical properties and their impacts on the atmosphere as well as instrument design and development.
- Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer – Part 1: Hygroscopic growth
- Biomass burning dominates brown carbon absorption in the rural southeastern United States
- Scoping studies to establish the capability and utility of a real-time bioaerosol sensor to characterise emissions from environmental sources
Darrel Baumgardner PhD
Darrel founded Droplet Measurement Technologies in 1987, and he continues working at Droplet today as Chief Scientist and member of the Board of Directors. He spent 20 years at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States and 14 years as a senior scientist at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, the largest university in Latin America. He is an internationally recognized expert on measurements of aerosol and cloud particles and has developed a number of new techniques for measuring their properties. Darrel obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Wyoming.
- Cloud Ice Properties: In Situ Measurement Challenges
- Processing of Ice Cloud In Situ Data Collected by Bulk Water, Scattering, and Imaging Probes: Fundamentals, Uncertainties, and Efforts toward Consistency
- Seasonal and diurnal trends in black carbon properties and co-pollutants in Mexico City
- Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particle
- Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes
- Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescent aerosol across the United States
Nicole joined Droplet Measurement Technologies as a Project Scientist in 2018. As a project scientist, her motivation is to help researchers design and execute experiments using Droplet instrumentation, with the aim to provide data for their desired research goals. Her instrument focus at Droplet includes the SIBS, WIBS-NEO, SP2, SP2-XR and PAX. Before Droplet, Nicole worked as an Applications Scientist with Aerosol Devices Inc., focusing on the research and development of instrumentation for the collection of airborne particles. Nicole received her M.Sc. in Chemistry at the University of Denver, with a focus in bioaerosol detection and characterization using UV-LIF instrumentation and received her B.Sc. in Chemistry from St. John Fisher College, NY.
- Spectral Intensity Bioaerosol Sensor (SIBS): an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles in real time
- Evaluation of a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method applied to WIBS laboratory data for improved discrimination of biological particles by comparing data preparation techniques
- Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles
Spencer is a member of the Science division at Droplet Measurement Technologies. His areas of expertise include cloud microphysics processes, investigations of weather modification efforts, and evaluations of airborne instrument performance. Spencer has acted as flight scientists during several field deployments, operating a suite of cloud-sensing instruments aboard research aircraft. He received his Master of Atmospheric Science degree from the University of Wyoming, where he was an active member of the UW King Air flight team. His thesis work investigated uncertainties in CDP measurements using data gathered during laboratory and flight-based experiments.